Extracting seizure onset from surface EEG with Independent Component Analysis: Insights from simultaneous scalp and intracerebral EEG

Andrei Barborica, Ioana Mindruta, Laurent Sheybani, Laurent Spinelli, Irina Oane, Constantin Pistol, Cristian Donos, Victor J López-Madrona, Serge Vulliemoz & Christian-George Bénar

Neuroimage-Clinical, Elsevier, 2021, 32, pp.102838

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Abstract : The success of stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG) investigations depends crucially on the hypotheses on the putative location of the seizure onset zone. This information is derived from non-invasive data either based on visual analysis or advanced source localization algorithms. While source localization applied to interictal spikes recorded on scalp is the classical method, it does not provide unequivocal information regarding the seizure onset zone. Raw ictal activity contains a mixture of signals originating from several regions of the brain as well as EMG artifacts, hampering direct input to the source localization algorithms. We therefore introduce a methodology that disentangles the various sources contributing to the scalp ictal activity using independent component analysis and uses equivalent current dipole localization as putative locus of ictal sources. We validated the results of our analysis pipeline by performing long-term simultaneous scalp – intracerebral (SEEG) recordings in 14 patients and analyzing the wavelet coherence between the independent component encoding the ictal discharge and the SEEG signals in 8 patients passing the inclusion criteria. Our results show that invasively recorded ictal onset patterns, including low-voltage fast activity, can be captured by the independent component analysis of scalp EEG. The visibility of the ictal activity strongly depends on the depth of the sources. The equivalent current dipole localization can point to the seizure onset zone (SOZ) with an accuracy that can be as high as 10mm for superficially located sources, that gradually decreases for deeper seizure generators, averaging at 47 mm in the 8 analyzed patients. Independent component analysis is therefore shown to have a promising SOZ localizing value, indicating whether the seizure onset zone is neocortical, and its approximate location, or located in mesial structures. That may contribute to a better crafting of the hypotheses used as basis of the stereo-EEG implantations.

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